American Pencil Co.
(click on pictures to enlarge)
The American Pencil Company was producing pencils of all different designs in the latter half of the 19th century. The leadholder on the left bears patent numbers 480199 and 584963. Both it and the one next to it are marked "Perpetual," though the orange one is painted wood with a spiral drive.
The next four are enamel over brass flattops marked "Everpointed." The first two are imprinted under the cap; the black one also uses the most famous trade name used by American, "Venus."
Later examples are somewhat chaotic. The candystripe example resembles similar pencils made by Wearever, the maroon one appears to be made by Eagle, and the last one may have been either Eclipse or Eagle.
Later American Pencil Co. products simply used the name "Venus," since the company's use of that name on its popular wood pencils made the mark such a household name.
Compare these to the later "Chicago" Conklins.